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Does "θέρος" mean "καλοκαίρι"?  Are they synonyms or is it ancient Greek?
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το θέρος means το καλοκαίρι (the summer) in ancient Greek.

In modern Greek the word θέρος is not used as it is.

We use only the adjective θερινός, -ή, -ό (which comes from the noun "θέρος") and it is a formal word instead of καλοκαιρινός, -ή, -ό.


Πότε αρχίζουν τα θερινά μαθήματα στο πανεπιστήμιο της Αθήνας; = When do the summer courses start in the university of Athens?

Ανυπομονώ για τις καλοκαιρινές διακοπές! = I am looking forward to the summer holidays!


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Does this have anything to do with "θερίζω"?
Another meaning of the word "θέρος" in ancient Greek is "crop".
The verb "θερίζω" in modern Greek means "reap", "harvest".