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What is the meaning of the word "βρε"?

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The word “βρε” is actually the vocative case “μωρέ” of the “μωρός, -ή, -ό” adjective.

The etymology of “μωρός” is “μη + ώρα” (not + time) and it means “ανώριμος” (immature) or idiot.

It is interesting to note that the neutral of “μωρός” is “μωρό” (baby), which is obviously immature.

In everyday speech “βρε” has lost this extreme negative meaning and simply shows great familiarity with the person we are talking too.  For this reason it would sound like an insult and we would never use it if we wanted to be polite and formal.

Βρε Γιάννη, πως τα περνάς;  (Giannis, how are you doing?)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vasiliki Baskou, Instructor/Director, https://learn-greek-online.com. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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In informal conversation βρε is very similar to an interjection like hey or gee (-z) in English and is used to express surprise, emphasis, disappointment, etc.
e.g. Hey, come on, Tina.. OR: Aw, come on, Tina =
Έλα βρε Τίνα..
Vasiliki, is "ρε" the same as "βρε"?
“ρε” is a subsequent form in the evolution of “μωρέ” ( μωρέ > βρε > ρε)
However “ρε” gives a more negative and insulting tone in the sentence.
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I'd like to add another synonym for "βρε", which is "ωρέ".  I think they used ωρέ in the 19th century, when Greece was still part of the Ottoman empire.

You are right.  "ωρέ" comes from "μωρέ", but it is no longer used nowadays. It's an older form.  Sometimes it was used to indicate anger or indignation.

Γιατί ωρέ άργησες; = Why were you late? (with angry tone)